From the moment of planting and for some time after the emergence of seedlings, the tuber remains the main source of nutrition of the plant. Its quality and health determine how harmoniously the root system, stems and leaves will develop.
Treatment of tubers before planting helps protect plants from underground pests — wireworm, bear and others, as well as from the Colorado potato beetle and aphids, whose larvae overwinter in the soil and attack all parts of potatoes.
In addition, tubers can be infected with various diseases, such as scab, fusarium and rot. Such planting material reduces to zero all chances of obtaining a crop. Also, diseased tubers are likely to infect the soil and other plants. Even if the potatoes look healthy externally, it is still worth carrying out preventive treatment, because the pathogens may not be visible at first.
The most convenient way is to use special complex preparations that will protect the crop from insects and diseases. But if you don't want to resort to chemicals, you can use more environmentally friendly methods. First, treat the potatoes from infections, let the remedy work for a certain time. After that, dip the tubers in one of the pest repellents described below, just before planting .
The pink solution will disinfect tubers and destroy fungi that cause various diseases.
dilute 5 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of cold water. Immerse the tubers in the solution for 15-20 minutes. Then take them out, spread them in one layer on a film or newspaper and let them dry.
This remedy can be found in shops and garden centers. This biofungicide effectively fights various fungal and bacterial infections of plants.
Dilute 200 g of phytosporin powder in 10 liters of cold water. Immerse the potatoes in the solution for 15 minutes. After that, take it out, spread it in one layer on a newspaper or film and let it dry. The bacteria contained in the phytosporin die in bright light, so the processing and drying of potatoes should be carried out in the shade.
This is a simple and budget-friendly way to protect potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle, which is also suitable for lovers of organic farming.
In 10 liters of cold water, thoroughly dissolve 1 kg of wood ash. Dip the tuber into the resulting mixture, and then immediately plant it in the ground. For greater efficiency, you can also pour a handful of dry wood ash on the bottom of the planting hole, and then put potatoes soaked in the solution there.
The specific smell of birch tar scares away not only Colorado beetles, but also other dangerous pests — wireworms and bears. This remedy can be found in garden centers, pharmacies and veterinary stores.
In a large bucket, pour 2 liters of warm water (temperature 35-40 degrees) and add 30 ml of birch tar. Stir the mixture intensively for 2-3 minutes, and then pour another 8 liters of warm water. Mix all the ingredients until a viscous oily dark liquid is obtained.
Immediately before planting, lower the potatoes into the solution for 5-10 seconds, and then immediately place it in the planting hole. The tar mixture should be used within 1.5–2 hours. After that, the liquid will exfoliate and become unsuitable for processing tubers.
This remedy helps to fight the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, bear and aphids .
In 10 liters of cold water, thoroughly dissolve 150 g of soap, crushed on a coarse grater, and 1 liter of gum turpentine. Dip the tuber into the resulting mixture and lower it into the planting hole.
As a rule, chemicals help protect tubers from the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm and aphids. Among the popular remedies are "Aktara" (thiamethoxam), "Tabu" and "Klubnerost" (both based on imidacloprid). To combat diseases, the drugs "Maxim", "Maxim Dachnik", "Sinclair" and "Quadris" are most often used.
Often both types of funds can be mixed. But it is better to clarify the compatibility information in advance. Although it is possible to test this experimentally. Prepare the working solutions of each drug according to the instructions, and then mix them in a small amount. If flakes begin to form in the liquid and precipitate, then the funds are incompatible.
There are also complex drugs that simultaneously fight both pests and pathogens of diseases, for example, "Taboo TRIO" and "Prestige". Carefully read the manufacturer's recommendations to properly prepare the solution. It also indicates how long you need to keep the tubers in the mixture.
On average, the validity period of special drugs is 60 days. Therefore, you should not use them for processing early potatoes. Its tubers ripen quickly (no later than 65 days after sowing), and chemicals may not have time to get out of them completely. But medium-ripe and late potatoes can be processed with such means without fear.
The principle of using any of the drugs or their mixtures is the same. Wear a mask and gloves so as not to harm your health when working. Prepare the solution according to the instructions (or mix two solutions) and pour it into the sprayer. Arrange the tubers in one layer on a strong film. Spray them generously with the mixture. In the process, you can turn the potatoes over several times with your hands so that the liquid gets on all its parts.
Leave the drug to act in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. This usually takes no more than two hours. After that, immediately start planting potatoes. It is not necessary to wash off the solution from the tubers after processing.