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About Everything Wiki » Education » Is it true that introverts are modest, but extroverts can't keep quiet

Is it true that introverts are modest, but extroverts can't keep quiet

26 Jan 2024, 12:01, parser
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How did the theory of introverts and extroverts arise

These terms first appeared in 1921 in the book Psychological Types by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. He suggested that introverts usually focus on their feelings and thoughts, while extroverts focus on other people and the outside world. Jung did not endow them with specific character traits, such as assertiveness or insularity.

In the 1960s, the idea was developed by Your DNA determines whether you’re an introvert or an extrovert — here’s how to tell which one you are / Business Insider psychologist Hans Eysenck. In his opinion, the difference between these types is how their nervous system reacts Eysenck / ScienceDirect to the signals of the external environment. Extroverts have a low rate of arousal, and they have to look for additional incentives — communication, new experiences. Introverts, on the contrary, have a high sensitivity to the world around them, so they are satisfied with quieter activities: heart-to-heart conversations or a secluded vacation.

Gradually, stereotypes have spread that the typical introvert is shy, thinks carefully about his actions and closes himself in times of stress. An extrovert is distinguished by responsiveness to other people and the ability to make quick decisions.

What influences the propensity for certain behaviors

Modern scientists believe that extraversion may be influenced by sensitivity to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that responds to Dopamine / Cleveland Clinic for a good mood and motivation.

In one study, volunteers were asked to M. X. Cohen, J. Young, et al. Individual differences in extraversion and dopamine genetics predict neural reward responses / Cognitive Brain Research Take a personality type survey and take a mouth swab for genetic analysis. Some participants were classified as extroverts, and they had a gene that affects the high sensitivity of the dopamine system. Then they were all invited to gamble and their brains were scanned in the process. It turned out that extroverts had more active brain areas responsible for emotions and the functioning of the reward mechanism.

Another study showed V. E. Golimbet, M. V. Alfimova, et al. Relationship between dopamine system genes and extraversion and novelty seeking / Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology that these same genes may enhance the tendency to seek novelty.

Other factors also influence behavior. For example, the environment. People from regions where it is too cold or hot, there are a lot of parasites and other health threats, show more R. Fischer, A. Lee, M. N. Verzijden. Dopamine genes are linked to Extraversion and Neuroticism personality traits, but only in demanding climates / Scientific Reports Extraversion than their neighbors on the planet living in a temperate climate. In adverse conditions, there are few resources, so people tend to take more risks and explore new situations, that is, act like extroverts. The value of the reward for them is higher than the negative experience. In a temperate climate, there are enough resources for everyone, so there is no need for such behavior.

Why not focus too much on the typology

Today, the division into introverts and extroverts is considered Introvert and extravert / Encyclopedia Britannica is overly simplistic because most people are somewhere in the middle. In different situations, they may exhibit features characteristic of both types. Let's say you have a few meetings at work in the afternoon and sit with a book in the evening. Behavior also depends on life circumstances. For example, during times of stress, even a typical extrovert may avoid communication.

Popular personality tests should also be treated critically. For example, most of the largest US companies use Goodbye to MBTI, the Fad That Won’t Die / Psychology Today The Myers —Briggs type indicator is used to evaluate employees. It was developed back in the 1940s based on the theories of Carl Jung. This test has become popular in South Korea How Koreans fell in love with an American World War II era personality test / CNN among young people who are looking for a date. But he does not have a broad evidence base K. Randall, M. Isaacson, C. Ciro. Validity and Reliability of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator / Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity , and therefore it is unlikely to help you find out the truth about the character of a potential employee or partner.

Mallory McCord from the University of Minnesota believes that personality tests create Expert Alert: Personality Bias / University of Minnesota a false picture of the world. "Introverts are supposed to hate people, want to be alone all the time, and don't like to talk. These are all stereotypes. Such assumptions can be harmful, especially in the workplace," says McCord.

In her research, she notes Expert Alert: Personality Bias / University of Minnesota that extroverts are given preference in hiring and promotion. At the same time, introverts can also be good leaders. A study published in the Harvard Business Review showed The Hidden Advantages of Quiet Bosses / Harvard Business Review that such a leader gives an advantage to proactive teams that are inclined to offer ideas for business improvement, because he does not draw attention to himself and gives others the opportunity to speak freely.

The author of the book "The Introverted Leader" Jennifer Kahnweiler also believes J. B. Kahnweiler. Stereotyping Introverts that you need to be careful when making generalizations about introverts and extroverts. "There are relatively few studies confirming the validity of any of them. And people's temperaments are complex and not easy to change. Yes, introverts can be amazing listeners, but extroverts can do it if they try to understand the other and ask questions," Kahnweiler notes.

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